Scientists encoded more than 1 bit in a single photon. They did this thanks to the multidimensional quantum key distribution system (QKD). This success means that data encryption will be even safer and more effective.
This discovery made by scientists at the American universities of Duke, Ohio and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory resists all currently known attack techniques for quantum data encryption. So far, scientists have presented a system that encodes two bits in a single photon and they estimate that this number may increase rapidly. Thanks to this key distribution is much faster than the currently used one. New systems are able to transmit encrypted data at a megabyte rate per second, compared to several dozen kilobits per second that we could observe in the previous systems.
A quantum state is generated by a special laser encoding information in the photon
A new data storage unit was also created, they are called Qudit. A Qudit is a multidimensional quantum state that can solve the problems commonly used in qubit quantum computers. Qubits are really one-dimensional qudits.
Quantum computers are not common yet, but the work on systems based on multivalued logic continues. The development of quantum computers is a threat to traditional methods of data encryption. According to scientists, algorithms such as RSA commonly used in electronic signatures will be broken by quantum computers over the next 10 years. For this reason, cryptologists are working on new encryption methods.
The multi-dimensional system has a very good distribution of probabilities and therefore is not exposed to statistical attacks
Quantum encryption will not be available immediately, therefore mathematicians are also looking for data encryption methods that can be applied to classical computers based binary logic. A possible solution may be found is the McElice algorithm based on linear codes. Others possibilities may be based on polynomial algorithms, NTRU encryption system, and also the usage of the Merkle tree. Most of the ideas were already known even 40 years ago. At the same time, algorithms based on multivalued logic applied in quantum computers are being developed.